General Linguistics/Syntax Resources

The Linguist list. The online source for linguists includes a sophisticated search engine and a variety of links and sources. http://www.linguistlist.org

LinguistList Plus: A for-pay service from Linguist List and Blackwell http://www.linguistlistplus.com/

Ask-A-Linguist: Ask your question to a panel of experts. http://linguistlist.org/ask-ling/

Linguistic Abstracts Online A search engine for published articles in linguistics. Requires either an institutional subscription or a subscription through LinguistList Plus http://labs.blackwellpublishers.com

The Linguistic Society of America: http://www.lsadc.org

The Linguistics Association of Great Britain: http://www.lagb.org.uk

The Canadian Linguistics Association: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~cla-acl/

The Australian Linguistics Society: http://www.als.asn.au/

SIL, a group of independent linguists who specialize in language description and bible translation, contains many helpful resources and links, including Free International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) fonts. http://www.sil.org/

Beatrice Santorini and Anthony Kroch's online syntax textbook (an excellent book but watch out for the cases where the formal definitions differ from the ones given in Carnie 2007): http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/syntax-textbook/

Synthinar, lectures on syntactic theory by Steven Schaufele on James Taubers web page: http://jtauber.com/linguistics/synthinar/

Online University resources in linguistics: http://www.onlineuniversity.net/resources/linguistics-resources/

Some Journals Which Publish Material on Syntactic Theory

Syntax Blackwell Publishers http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.aspref=1368-0005&site=1

Linguistic Inquiry MIT Press http://www-mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.aspsid=7C0F0123-B462-42A2-907C-B3C93F2A060E&ttype=4&tid=6

Natural Language and Linguistic Theory Springer http://www.springer.com/west/homeSGWID=4-102-70-35610881-0

Chapter 1 Foundations

Information on the Scientific Method: http://teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/AppendixE/AppendixE.html http://phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node5.html http://www.selu.edu/Academics/Education/EDF600/Mod3/

Wikipedia on the Scientific Method: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method

Wikipedia on Hypothesis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothesis

Wikipedia on falsifiability: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falsifiability

Wikipedia on Generative Grammar: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generative_Grammar

Wikipedia on Syntax: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax

Article from the MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Generative Grammar by Geoff Pullum http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/pullum.html

General Information on Syntax from the MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Cognet) by Edwin Williams http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/williams.html

Article from the MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Innateness by Kenneth Wexler http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/wexler2.html

Noam Chomsky's Home Page http://mit.edu/linguistics/www/chomsky.home.html

Online Biography of Noam Chomsky http://addendum.mit.edu/e-books/chomsky/

Wikipedia on Noam Chomsky: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky

     CHILDES database of Child Language data, edited by Brian McWhinny http://childes.psy.cmu.edu/

Article on Universal Grammar and Universals by David Pesetsky, from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/pesetsky

Wikipedia on Universal Grammar: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_grammar

A short article on Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar by E. Finegan http://www.lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-prescrip.cfm

A short article from the LSA website on Grammar by Sandy Chung and Geoff Pullum: http://www.lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-grammar.cfm

The origins of some prescriptive grammar rules http://www.uoregon.edu/~spike/ling290/badEnglish.html

A paper criticizing the Logical Problem of Language Acquisition http://www.ircs.upenn.edu/cogsci2000/PRCDNGS/SPRCDNGS/PAPERS/HENDRICK.PDF

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on the Poverty of the Stimulus argument by Gary Marcus http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/marcus

Chapter 2 Parts of Speech

Article on parts of speech from the University of Ottawa writing center: http://www.arts.uottawa.ca/writcent/hypergrammar/partsp.html

Article on part of speech tagging for computers from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech_tagging

Article on Parts of speech from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part-of-speech

Wikipedia article on subcategorization: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcategorization_frame

Wikipedia article on features: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feature_%28linguistics%29

Wikipedia article on transitivity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transitive_verb

Wikipedia article on open vs closed class: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed_class_word

Wikipedia articles on:

o Noun: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun

o Verb: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verb

o Adjective: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective

o Adverb: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adverb

o Auxiliary Verbs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auxiliary_verb

o Conjunctions: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_conjunction

o Prepositions: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adposition

Chapter 3 Constituency

Arboreal: Syntactic Tree Font from Cascadilla Press http://www.cascadilla.com/arboreal.html

Trees, a program for that allows you to input phrase structure grammars and generate trees, by Tony Kroch and Sean Crist. http://babel.ling.upenn.edu/~kroch/Trees.html

Article from the MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Ambiguity by Michael Tanenhaus and Julie Sedivy http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/tanenhaus

Wikipedia article on Constituency Tests: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constituent_%28linguistics%29

Wikipedia article on Syntactic Ambiguity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_ambiguity

Wikipedia article on the formalism of phrase structure grammar: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntactic_ambiguity

Wikipedia article on Phrase structure rules: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrase_structure_rules

Wikipedia article on Context Free Grammars: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Context_free_grammar

Tree form program: A useful tool, but not recommended until you are practiced in drawing the trees yourself. Also be careful because it wrongly draws a line between terminals and their categories. http://www.ece.ubc.ca/~donaldd/treeform.htm

phpSyntaxTree v1.11: A useful tool, but not recommended until you are practiced in drawing the trees yourself. Also be careful because it wrongly draws a line between terminals and their categories: http://www.ironcreek.net/phpsyntaxtree/PHPSESSID=fa03014197ee26baa7a8493b8602871b

SVG tree drawer: A useful tool, but not recommended until you are practiced in drawing the trees yourself. Also be careful because it wrongly draws a line between terminals and their categories: http://www.linguiste.org/syntax/tree/drawer/

SyNTeX is tree drawing software for those who use LaTeX to edit their documents: http://freshmeat.net/projects/syntex/

Chapter 4 Structural Relations

Article on grammatical Relations from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) by Ellen Woolford http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/woolford.html

Structural relations from criticism.com: http://www.criticism.com/linguistics/govt-binding-basics1.php

Wikipedia article on c-command http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-command

Beatrice Santorini & Tony Kroch's chapter on structural relations: http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/syntax-textbook/box-nodes.html

Chapter 5 Binding Theory

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Anaphora by Tanya Reinhart http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/reinhart1.html

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Binding theory by Tanya Reinhart http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/reinhart2.html

Wikipedia article on Anaphora: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphora_%28linguistics%29

Wikipedia article on Binding theory: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_%28linguistics%29 (see also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_and_Binding_Theory )

Chapter 6 X-bar theory

X-bar theory (Wikipedia Article) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-bar_theory

X-bar theory (article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) by Liliane Haegeman) http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/haegeman

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on parameter setting by Michel deGraff http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/degraff

Article on X-bar theory form the Linguistics Lexicon: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=X-bar+theory

Wikipedia article on heads: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_%28linguistics%29

Chapter 7 CP TP DP

Wikipedia on Clauses: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clause

Handout on Clause types by Kyle Johnson http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~kbj/ling401h/Content/handout01_clause_types.PDF

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Tense and Aspect morphology by Osten Dahl http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/dahl.html

Article on DP structure by Roberto Zamparelli http://www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/~roberto/layers/intro.html

Wikipedia on DP: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determiner_phrase

Wikipedia on Complementizers and Complementizer Phrases: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complementizer

Wikipedia on tense: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on Functional Projections: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/

Chapter 8 Lexicon

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on the Lexicon by Jane Grimshaw http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/grimshaw

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Thematic Roles by James Higginbotham http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/higginbotham.html

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on the acquisition of word meaning by Paul Bloom and Lila Gleitman http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/bloom2.html

Wikipedia article on the lexicon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexicon

Badly written Wikipedia article on Thematic Roles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thematic_role

Short articles from the Linguistics Lexicon on

thematic theory: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=Thematic+theory

argument structure: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=argument+structure

Theta grid: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=theta-grid

Chapter 9 Head Movement

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on head movement by Lisa Travis http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/travis

A summary of information on verb movement from the Linguist List by Sharbani Banerji http://www.emich.edu/~linguist/issues/12/12-1455.html

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on head-movement: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=head+movement

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on movement: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on D-structure: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=D-structure

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on S-structure: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=S-Structure

Chapter 10 DP Movement

Wikipedia's list of cases: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_grammatical_cases

Wikipedia on Accusative Case http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accusative_case

Wikipedia on Nominative Case: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nominative_case

Wikipedia on Ergative Case http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_case

Wikipedia on Absolutive Case: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolutive_case

Wikipedia on Voice http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_voice

Wikipedia on Trace: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trace_%28linguistics%29

Wikipedia on Raising http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on Case Theory: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=Case&lemmacode=854

Short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on the Case Filter: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=Case+filter

Chapter 11 Wh-movement

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on wh-movement by Gugliemo Cinque http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/cinque.html

Entry from Linguistics Lexicon on wh-movement: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=wh-movement

Entry from Linguistics Lexicon on wh-phrase: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=wh-phrase

Entry from Linguistics Lexicon on echo-questions: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=Echo+question&lemmacode=770

Short article on Islands from the Linguistics Lexicon: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/

Wikipedia article on Wh-movement including Island effects: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wh-movement

Chapter 12 Unified Theory of Movement

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Minimalism by Howard Lasnik http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/lasnik.html

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Logical Form by Robert May http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/may.html

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Quantifiers by Ed Keenan http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/keenan.html

The Minimalist Syntax Homepage http://www.minimalism.linguistics.arizona.edu/

The Arizona Minimalist Syntax Archive (AMSA) http://www.minimalism.linguistics.arizona.edu/AMSA/archives.html

Article from Linguistics Lexicon on wh-in-situ: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=wh-in-situ

Very short article from Linguistics Lexicon on PF: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=PF

Short article from Linguistics Lexicon on LF: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=Logical+Form

Short article from Linguistics Lexicon on Quantifier Raising (QR): http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=Quantifier+Raising

Very short article from the Linguistics Lexicon Scope ambiguity: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=scope+ambiguity

Very short article from the Linguistics Lexicon on Scope: http://www2.let.uu.nl/UiL-OTS/Lexicon/zoek.pllemma=scope

Chapter 14 Advanced Binding

Linguist List Online conference on binding http://www.linguistlist.org/linconf/

Very short article on binding from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_(linguistics)

Chapter 15 Raising and Control

An article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on Pragmatics by Larry Horn and Gregory Ward: http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/horn2.html

Wikipedia article on Null Subjects: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Null_subjects

Wikipedia article on Control verbs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_verb

Wikipedia article on Raising verbs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising_verb

Chapter 16 Lexical Functional Grammar

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on LFG architecture by Mary Dalrymple http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/dalrymple

Stanford LFG homepage http://www-lfg.stanford.edu/lfg/

Essex LFG homepage http://clwww.essex.ac.uk/LFG/

Wikipedia article on LFG: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_Functional_Grammar

Summary of LFG by Ananda Lima: http://emsah.uq.edu.au/linguistics/Working%20Papers/ananda_ling/LFG_Introduction.htm

Chapter 17 Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar

Article from MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Science (Cognet) on HPSG architecture by Georgia Green http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/green

Stanford HPSG homepage http://hpsg.stanford.edu/

Ohio State HPSG homepage http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/hpsg/

Wikipedia article on HPSG: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head-Driven_Phrase_Structure_Grammar

Summary of HPSG by Ananda Lima: http://emsah.uq.edu.au/linguistics/Working%20Papers/ananda_ling/HPSG_Introduction.htm